Sky-high prices for habitual housing are forced to look for an alternative to it. Increasingly, the solution is becoming a container house.
What containers are houses built from?
For modular homes, two types of cargo containers are most often used: sea and rail.
Their internal dimensions are standard. For marine: length 6, 12 and 13.5 m, height 2.35 and 2.7 m, width 2.35. For rail, respectively: 6; 2.35; 2.35 meters
Sea or railway containers are made of solid steel, which makes it possible to install them on several floors.
The floor is usually made of steel or wood. The roof is made of iron beams and steel. The fastening of all elements of the container is practically hermetic. The module is loaded through the end, the door of which is equipped with special seals. It can be removed, but it is more practical to use the flap butt as the base of the veranda or for closing the house.
It does not matter which containers the house will be built from: sea or rail. Both are "indifferent" to any external influence, have a solid construction, from both types you can build a small house with your own hands.
New construction industry. Block-containers have more diverse sizes: height from 2.6 to 3 m; length is 3-9 m; width 2.3-3 m. There is an option with a length of 12 m. They also, like traditional ones, consist of a strong frame, are stationary, that is, welded firmly, or collapsible, which makes it easy to transport and assemble them on site.
The metal frame is the same; modular houses from block-containers differ in the structure of walls and roofs. For wall cladding, profiled sheeting, plywood, standard or sandwich panels, metal sheet or polymer coated are used.
At the request of the client, even a simple country house from a block-container can be equipped with heating, electrical wiring, other utilities, and have 2 floors. Available in the "northern" version, taking into account any climate. You can order a mobile home-wagon ready.
Pros and cons of containers
This type of accommodation has pros and cons. However, it is popular for several reasons, the main of which is financial: the cost of constructing houses from block-containers, rail or sea is several times less than a traditional house of equal area.
What are good containers?
You can live in it permanently or from time to time. Besides houses from sea, railway containers:
- Durable. The frame of the container makes facilities more reliable than wooden houses. They are well protected from unauthorized entry.
- They are built easier and faster than ordinary houses: a solid foundation is not needed, you can get by more easily. All the necessary structures are there, it remains to warm everything and to arrange it beautifully.
- Immune to earthquakes, floods, other external influences, detrimental to standard buildings.
- Ecologically safe. The port container is intended for the storage of various cargoes, it is made only of certified materials, so there is no need to worry about health hazards.
- Fertile object for individual design, turning them into an exclusive.
- Mobile The house from the containers can be easily transported to a new place: the building will not suffer.
- It is possible to install houses from sea containers in areas with a significant horizontal slope.
- Installed in regions with extreme climates (Far North, Siberia).
- Can be multi-storey, for example, in two floors of the four container segments.
All of the above makes it possible to erect large structures, even multi-unit ones. Similar projects have already been implemented in Europe and the USA.
What is worth considering?
The direct purpose of the containers is the transportation of goods. This is due to the few drawbacks of the house from the containers:
- increased tightness, the problem of which can be solved by installing a high-quality ventilation system;
- the walls of the container quickly heat up and cool down, so the container intended for living must be properly insulated;
- the design may rust, therefore, preliminary anti-corrosion treatment is required.
A significant flaw at home from freight containers that cannot be repaired is a height not exceeding 2.4 meters. Tall people in such housing will be uncomfortable. Block containers are better in this respect - they are three meters tall.
Modular homes from containers can be installed even in a small area. Durable construction and material make realistic any projects of houses of different configurations, as from a designer. There are several typical options, however, architects constantly produce new ideas.
From 1 container
The most affordable, economical, fast option to build a house out of containers. From the building with a length of 6 m and with a usable area of 14 sq. M there will be a small guest house. It can be used as a workshop, storage or for other household needs.
The module is 12 meters long with a useful area of 28 sq. M. Can accommodate a room, a kitchen and a bathroom. It turns out a good guest or country house from the container.
If you want your beloved cottage or permanent residence to be more spacious, there is a place and financial resources allow you to easily install nearby "rooms" or to assemble a house from containers, arranging them in any order. Architects offer several ideas:
- Joining two or more blocks on the long side creates a large house. It is only necessary to cut through the doorways. If you need one big room, a piece of plating is cut out on the blocks.
- Offset two containers relative to each other.
- An interesting solution for country houses: two spaced containers with a common roof, as a result of which additional space appears between them.
- A house of two containers in the form of an L-shaped construction of segments of the same or different size.
The house of three containers is 85 square meters of usable area (with a length of 12 and a width of 7.1 meters). You can place them in the form of a U-shaped design. Such a house, built of three fragments, will receive a cozy inner courtyard.
In 2-3 floors
It is more profitable to build a house of 4 containers in a two-story building: not only money is saved, but also the area for a house. The containers are placed on top of each other, the floors are connected by a ladder, for which a hole is cut in the ceiling of the first and second floor of the second module. On each floor, holes are also cut between the rooms. However, the foundation requires a solid.
Increased usable area
Expand the mini-house a variety of awnings, verandas. They are created by placing on the lower container another one, hanging or shifted. The protruding part is mounted on supports. An unusual look has a canopy, obtained by installing the upper module on the lower, spaced from each other.
You can also use the roof: the options are good not only with the traditional flat, but also sloping with an attic where it is convenient to store things.
For the roof of a building from a sea container, even a multi-storey one, you can use any material up to the tile.
For spending the weekend on the water. It was built by a resident of the American Buffalo. The design includes a frame and base of durable plywood, and all used plastic containers are kept afloat.
Construction of the house from containers
Having decided to build a house of sea containers, it is necessary to determine the dimensions of the area under construction. Construction includes several stages:
- Project development, design thinking.
- Foundation construction.
- Connecting modules in a one-piece design.
- Ensuring the strength of supporting structures.
- Installation of the warming material.
- Decorative design of the building.
If you have the experience and skills, you can do almost everything on your own and save. Otherwise, entrust the construction of houses from containers to specialists. With any option a lot of time it does not take.
The main thing you need to remember - the internal layout can be any. It is advisable not to forget about utility rooms, to make convenient movement between them. There will be as many living rooms as there are containers.
The container is made of durable steel, therefore it is massive, but its weight, even from three sea containers, cannot be compared with a traditional stone house, therefore a belt-type foundation is sufficient. However, in regions with loose or marshy soils, one cannot do without piles.
A powerful foundation, the installation of which takes up a third of all costs, is not required in any case.
Reliable method - welding. During the assembly process, metal fasteners are used: angles or channels.
Grinders cut window and door openings, after which the cuts are carefully processed.
Strengthening supporting structures
There are no openings in the container, however, residential buildings made of sea containers without windows and doors are not complete. Creating holes significantly reduces the rigidity of structures, so they are strengthened by welding pipes or channels along the perimeter of the opening. These stiffeners are installed from floor to ceiling. After welding, anticorrosion processing of the container is carried out.
More serious fortification, channel bars thicker, require two-story construction.
Mandatory attribute of the house of sea containers for cold climates. Strong thermal insulation from high-quality materials makes living more comfortable, reduces heating costs, but even the best materials will not help if you do not eliminate the heat leakage channels: slots, windows, doors, and the increased thermal conductivity of the case.
Outside or inside?
How to insulate a residential house from the containers - from the outside or from the inside - the owner decides on the basis of his capabilities, the specifics of the area and the properties of the container material. Corrosion is possible only on the surface of the housing on both sides. External enough to cover with mastic or paint. From the inside is more difficult: dampness and corrosion causes evaporation.
Warming outside eliminates the problem if the house is heated from containers in the winter or live in it permanently. Containers used as cottages will freeze through the cold. The inclusion of heating exacerbates the situation: the metal walls will begin to thaw, all the moisture will be inside. As a result - a mold, short circuit in an electrical wiring.
We warm from the inside correctly
House-container used for living needs internal warming, excluding contact of air with walls.
Construction operations are similar to those performed in a standard building. First, on the ceiling and walls you need to make a wooden crate. 3 layers are applied on the prepared surface:
- material not susceptible to heat and moisture: polystyrene foam, polyurethane foam;
- vapor barrier - attached to the crate construction stapler;
- decorative: from lining, chipboard, other beautiful material.
As a result, all the energy released will warm the room, not the metal.
A container house can be heated with a gas boiler or a conventional wood burning stove. To the room was no smoke, the furnace is placed on the outside of the building.
Insulating layers are closed with plywood or OSB. Decorating houses from containers is no different from the usual. The design of the warmed walls is chosen at will, as for a traditional room.
Wooden container flooring is treated with antiseptic and fire-fighting agents, therefore, before building a house, it is not rational to dismantle it. It is better to use as a base for decorative material, from linoleum to parquet. Installation is simple, can be performed independently.
The design of the house will improve the bright coloring, unfinished porch, stained glass windows on the inner veranda, other small forms.