Thanks to the bright golden or orange inflorescences of gelenium, the design of the garden plot becomes joyful and luxurious in the fall. 39 species of plants are known, and some varieties have a decorative meaning, for example, autumn helenium. All types of garden forms and hybrid varieties are called the same - hybrid gelenium. Varieties of plants differ in stem height and color of flower baskets. Inflorescences have a daisy-like appearance with a convex core. The color palette of baskets is the most diverse: from bright lemon yellow and brown hues to purple red tones.
Stems can grow to a height of 10 to 160 cm and end with one or more flower baskets. The leaves are oval or spear-shaped.
Reproduction of perennial gelenium
Any species of this plant allows for breeding in several ways (seeds, separation of the bush or grafting).
The seeds of this plant are not distinguished by good germination, but definitely worth trying to grow flowers in this way.
You can sow the seeds immediately in the soil in the autumn or spring season. However, if there is a desire to grow seedlings first, then sow the seeds in a box in February-March. Preliminary, it is desirable to carry out the stratification of seeds - the container with the planted seeds is wrapped in polyethylene and placed in a cool place for 30-45 days.
Then the container is taken out and placed in a warm place under artificial light. For germination sprouts need a temperature of 18-22 ° C. After the emergence of 2-3 leaves on sprouts, seedlings dive.
Breeding by dividing rosettes
This method can be considered the easiest and most accessible, since any perennial shrub created by independent single-stem plants that form a columnar shape. Each year, this shrub grows by about 10 stems, so it can be divided a year after planting one seedling.
For the operation, the plant is carefully dug out and divided into several individual bushes. And there is no need to make special efforts, as the roots-sockets break up almost independently. Thus, at the same time there is an update of adult plants.
A similar breeding of perennial geleniums is carried out in spring or autumn. The most convenient time for seating is May. All young bushes should be placed in pre-prepared holes. Saplings bloom the very next year.
Dilution by grafting
This method can be practiced even during active growth of the stems. Cuttings are cut to a length of about 10–13 cm. For the rapid formation of roots, it is recommended that the cutting of the cutting be treated with special formulations — Kornevin.
The stalk is placed in a vessel with water or slightly immersed in the soil. As soon as the first roots appear, the plant can be planted in open ground at a permanent place of growth.
Planting and caring for geleniums
Before planting seedlings is preparing the soil. This perennial grows well on light and nutrient neutral soil. As a preparatory measure, it is advisable to dig the ground and fertilize the soil with compost. Planting sprouts in the ground is carried out in late May - early June, when night frosts are already unlikely. Heleniums prefer sunny areas, although they do not refuse to grow in shaded areas.
When planting geleniums, the following layout of seedlings is used: the distance between the holes is no less than 30 cm, and between rows — from 35 cm. The hole under the flower is dug out twice as large as the root ball. The root of the seedling is first dipped in water so that the plant is saturated with liquid, and then buried in the hole to the same depth as it was in the pot. If a little bit of expanded clay or small broken brick (in any case not construction debris) is poured at the bottom of the pit, a permanent drainage of the soil will be ensured. The soil is mulched with peat after all the plants are planted. With this method of breeding geleniums bloom in the second year.
High-quality care of the plant involves the constant watering of greenery. This is due to the natural habitat of perennial geleniums: wet meadows or marshy lowlands. In the dry season it is necessary to increase the amount of watering, and the best option would be to use the drip method. However, one should not allow overmoistening of the soil or stagnation of water. To prevent these phenomena, the earth around the plants after watering is loosened and sprinkled with new mulch.
Preparation of plants for winter includes pruning of stems and soil mulching. As mulch you can use peat, fallen leaves. If there are no such materials, then any nonwovens will do.
To ensure lush flowering and active growth of plants, it is necessary to ensure their constant fertilizer.
- The first time the soil is fertilized in early May, since it is at this time that the active growth of perennial begins. As a top dressing it is better to use urea or some liquid composition.
- The second time the plants are fed to increase the volume of flowering. As a top dressing, it is recommended to use the compositions of Agricola-7 or Agricola-fantasy. Manufacturers indicate on the packaging how to use the compositions.
- When the plant ottsvetet, spend the third feeding, which is designed to prepare the plant for the winter period. To do this, you can use superphosphate or potassium sulfate.
To maintain the flowering splendor, a small pruning of the bushes is also carried out. For this purpose, the tips of the highest shoots are removed. Abundant flowering and the development of new flowers will ensure the removal of buds.
Helenium pests and control
It can be considered that this perennial is resistant to diseases and various pests, but sometimes plants can infect a chrysanthemum nematode (worms). The reason for this may be fallen foliage of diseased plants. There is also an opinion that the reason may be the soil. The disease can strike the plant from May to late autumn. Manifestation of the disease in the form of education on the foliage and buds of brown spots, which stops the flowering and development of bushes. For treatment, the aerial part of the perennial is poured with water heated to 50 °, and the ground is sprinkled with lime.
To preventive measures include: watering the root zone, and not above-ground greenery; not planting land where cases were observed.
Due to the variety of varieties of gelenium and its decoration, it is very popular when decorating gardens. Tall species can decorate lawns on their own or perfectly decorate unclean walls and fences. Small plants are very elegantly framed garden paths. Any variety wonderfully complements flower beds.
The plant fits very well into any landscape design and is elegantly combined with many plants. Lush flowering will delight summer people from the end of the summer until the first autumn frosts.